An overview of allergic and bacterial conjunctivitis

  • N Schellack Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
  • N Shirindza Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
  • T Mokoena Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
Keywords: allergic disease, antihistamine, anaphylaxis, atopy, atopic march, rhinitis, sinusitis

Abstract

Conjunctivitis affects many people across the globe, significantly disturbing the quality of life of the people who are affected. Conjunctivitis can be divided into infectious and noninfectious causes. Viruses and bacteria are the most common infectious causes. Some of the most commonly diagnosed allergic diseases include atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and sinusitis. Other conditions, such as eosinophilic oesophagitis, the prevalence of which is on the rise, are being diagnosed across all continents, except for Africa.

Allergic conjunctivitis is an allergic disease characterised by inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by airborne allergens; it presents as itching, excessive lacrimation, discharge and pink eye. Usually it is associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Allergic conjunctivitis is further divided into acute, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC). Bacterial conjunctivitis, caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, may include three major categories: hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis, acute conjuncitivis and chronic conjunctivitis. The diagnosis is primarily clinical.

This article provides an overview of these conditions and their current management options.

Author Biographies

N Schellack, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa

N Shirindza, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa

T Mokoena, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa

Published
2020-04-17
Section
Review